List of Acronyms and Abbreviations

AR Augmented Reality

ARPU Average Revenue Per User

CITC Communications and IT Commission of Saudi Arabia

DAU Daily Active Users

DFID UK Department for International Development

FCS Fundación Carlos Slim/Carlos Slim Foundation

FTTC Fibre-To-The-Cabinet

FTTH Fibre-To-The-Home

FTTS Fibre-To-The-Street

GSMA GSM Association

HTS High-Throughput Satellite (satellite system)

ICT Information and Communication Technology

IMDA Infocomm Media Development Authority of Singapore

IoT Internet of Things

ITSO International Telecommunication Satellite Organization

ITU International Telecommunication Union

LDCs Least Developed Countries

LMICs Low- and Middle-Income Countries

M2M Machine To Machine

MAU Monthly Active Users

MLC Media Literacy Council (of Singapore)

MNOs Mobile Network Operators

MSMEs Micro-, Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

NBP National Broadband Plan

NCDs Non-Communicable Diseases

NGSO Non-Geostationary Satellite Orbit

OECD Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development

OERs Open Educational Resources

PUE Power Usage Effectiveness

QoE Quality of Experience

QoS Quality of Service

RoW Right of Way

SMEs Small- and Medium-Sized Enterprises

TCO Total Cost of Ownership

TESSA Teacher Education for Sub-Saharan Africa

UHC Universal Health Coverage

USF Universal Service Fund

VR Virtual Reality

WUE Water Usage Effectiveness

WWF World Wildlife Fund

2G Second-generation mobile

3G Third-generation mobile

4G Fourth-generation mobile

5G Fifth-generation mobile